Down, down, down in Tin Town!

So, you know I’m an archaeology student, right? Well anyway I can only suppose that is the reasoning behind the excitement I felt when I gazed upon the remnants of what was once a thriving community, Tin Town. I was not expecting to find anything worthy of a blog article on that particular sojourn near Ladybower Reservoir. I may be an Ancient Historian through and through but the industrial past of Britain, holds a great deal of personal wealth to me, as my own family is rich in coal mining history. As such though this sojourn was many weeks ago, Tin Town has been playing on my mind even through exam season, so here is at last an article upon it.

 
Tin Town also known as Birchinlee, stands only in remnants now beside the Howden Reservoir, scattered throughout a plantation forest. Tin Town was intended as a worker’s village and thus its fate was sealed upon the completion of the Derwent and Howden Reservoirs, this would be a process which lasted over a mere 14 years. This community was purpose built for the navvies and their families, employed to work on the dams. When the village construction began the Derwent was a narrow body of water, in March 1901 it was little more than 20 yards wide.

 
The influx of labour into urban centres meant that much greater levels of water were needed for the basic needs of urban concentrations of people. The populations of Yorkshire and Lancashire doubled from 3.8 million to 8 million between 1850 and 1900. A new system of reservoirs would be needed in order to sustain such population growth, a system of permanent stone dams, bigger than any before constructed in Britain. The Derwent Valley Water Board was called in being by a collective of the Sheffield, Derby, Leicester and Nottingham councils, to build the reservoirs and manage the water supply of these urban centres. The formation of this Board required an Act of Parliament and Royal assent, with governmental loans granted to commence work. Two sites were identified as suitable for the construction of dams, one on Howden Moor and the second to the north of Derwent village. For the construction of these dams over 2 million tonnes of stone would be needed, a light-gauge railway was constructed to transport such large amounts of stone from the quarry at Bole Hill near Grindleford. The engineer Edward Sandeman designed and oversaw construction of both dams. It would be George Sutton, an employee of Sandeman however that developed the village. George Sutton was also the village missioner, and was employed by the Derwent Valley Water Board to care for the spiritual welfare of the workforce. He was extremely influential in the community and even following the death of his wife in 1907, leaving 6 children in his care, his resolve to serve the spiritual needs of the community didn’t lessen. His was the last family to leave Birchinlee in 1915, having survived in the former Post Office building, as the rest of Tin Town was demolished around them. Sutton would write a sentimental essay on life in the village, the only resident of Tin Town to ever commit his memories of the area to writing.

 
Tin Town was referred to as such because the buildings were constructed distinctively from temporary materials such as corrugated iron and wood. These constructions would later be sold off or moved, upon the discontinuance of the Birchinlee community. One such construction can still be found in the Peak District village of Hope, where it is now employed as a hairdresser’s.

 

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Image Of Former Birchinlee Construction – Taken & Copyrighted To http://www.derbyshireheritage.co.uk

One Sidney Lloyd, who lived in Birchinlee in his childhood in 1982 told The Star that his father moved to work on the dams from Wales. He also recollects that ‘you might think a village of corrugated iron would be a bit rough and ready but it was well built and the homes were warm and comfortable’. The Derwent Valley Water Company constructed the village and they were by law required to provide acceptable facilities for their workforce. It was a common denominator amongst the workers of Birchinlee, the majority had been previously engaged in the construction of the Elan Valley Reservoirs in Wales where accommodation was basic at most. Birchinlee in contrast must have seemed a sort of paradise.

 
Birchinlee was a genuine community, it had its own shops, hospitals, church, school, recreation hall, canteen (pub), post office, rubbish dump with incinerator, fire and police stations, railway station and public bath house. Despite the existence of the police station lock-up it seems it was never used, instead resident PC Neil McLean resolved disputes by encouraging men to fight it out. One of the shops was owned by the Gregory brothers from Tideswell and was extremely well-stocked and integral to the local community. One William ‘Dick’ Motley ran the greengrocers for its owner, George Sweet of Sheffield. And Miss Bessie Bateman ran the confectioners. Edith Hallett was Birchinlee’s longest-serving schoolmistress, she moved to Abbey Grange, a house near the village outskirts which was one of the only pre-existing buildings in the area, upon her marriage to William Kennedy, the son of a local gamekeeper.

 

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A Birchinlee Store Front, Perhaps The General Store – Credit To Derwent Digital Imaging

It was recognised by the Derwent Valley Water Company that decent facilities with a settled workforce meant greater worker productivity. To supplement their wages many workers took in lodgers. The days in Tin Town were long with the first breakfasts at 5am and supper being served at 10.30pm. In their leisure time Tin Town residents enjoyed singing groups, flower shows, whist drives, visits by concert parties, dances and hand-cranked cinema shows. The village football teams won cups in the Sheffield Amateur League, cricket and billiards were also competitive. Tin Town had two hospitals, one of which was an isolation hospital ½ a mile to the west of the main diaspora of the community, as there were times where infectious disease could threaten the entire community. The variety of shops for such a small community was astounding it included a draper, general store, cobbler, tobacconist, greengrocer, confectioner and a hairdresser. The phenomenon of the travelling tradesman was also prevalent in Tin Town, in example can be given the fact that no less than four butchers were licensed to sell meat in Birchenlee. The centre of the community was the recreation hall which was large enough to seat the village’s entire adult population for public meetings. The hall had a parquet floor and dances held there became so popular that they drew individuals from surrounding communities. The most popular area of the community however was undoubtedly the Derwent Canteen, a public house which was the single place in Birchinlee where the sale of alcohol was permitted.

 
The accommodation consisted of foremen’s huts, married workmen’s huts and workmen’s huts. The married workmen’s huts were decorated to a high standard for the time. The population of the town would rise to around 900 people. All houses in Birchinlee were prefabricated, clad entirely in corrugated iron on a timber frame. Each separate dwelling incorporated a Derbyshire grate and flute for a heating system, and paraffin was used for illumination and exterior street lighting. Water was piped from a smaller reservoir constructed with the intention of serving the village. The sewerage and drains ran to a treatment works which was remote form the communal areas. An interesting distinction however is that each individual dwelling in Birchinlee had a water toilet, in most cases this consisted of an outhouse. The distinction is interesting as most communities in Britain in the early 20th century did not have such modern hygiene facilities. The basic design of the homes was similar for almost 50 structures, single-storey dwellings some 40m in length and 4m in width. The houses of the village were arranged in three streets, each one parallel to the main village road. Three differing internal plans were used, 26 huts were open dormitories for single men, 15 were partitioned into 4 terraced houses for families, 6 were partitioned into two for foremen and village worthies. To the west of the village were garden allotments to which every resident of Birchinlee was entitled, enabling them to supplement their diet or perhaps their income.

 

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The Huts On Three Parallel Streets In Birchinlee – Taken From publictransportexperience.blogspot.com

The family accommodations would be grouped to the south of the village, providing distance from the single workmen’s dormitories in the north of the community. Further south from this and close to the railway station, were the houses of the village authorities and worthies, including a schoolmaster, missionary and policeman and village inspector appointed by the Derwent Valley Water Company. Many of the towns buildings would have been stark in appearance but were enhanced by the community, most of the shops had large display windows, the grocery store for example had wooden gables added. The recreation hall had a bell tower and was weather-boarded and painted white. The schoolhouse also had a bell tower constructed.

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An Area Of Birchinlee, Showing Corrugated Iron Housing – Derwent Digital Imaging.

One interesting event in the towns history, appears to have been the appearance of abstinence campaigner Robert Batty who started a furious row with his claim to have found ‘the road dotted with poor groups of fellows who were obviously the worse for liquor’. He claimed that a padded cell was kept in the hospital for the worst cases of alcoholism. An enquiry in response to this made by Derwent Valley Water Company concluded that Mr. R. Batty has been misled in his own conclusions by ‘fanciful and untrue statements’ from workmen.

 
The Howden Dam was opened in 1912 with great fanfare, it was a big occasion with a formal ceremony and celebrations with dancing and fireworks. When the Derwent Dam’s construction was finally completed in 1916 however it was with little fanfare, the war had begun and the Birchinlee community dispersed elsewhere, their homes sold.

 
The working conditions that the men of Tin Town suffered, though a considerable improvement over Victorian gang-labour, were laborious and gruelling. Over the 14-year process of building the Howden and Derwent dams 18 men were killed, with an unknown number being injured. There was no single incident responsible for a group of fatalities, most incidents were singular. Arrivals to the dam projects despite this were numerous, new arrivals were however obliged to spend a week as residents of the doss-house in Hollinclough before admittance into the Tin Town communities. This was more than a preventative measure against antisocial tendencies, it also allowed the isolation of potential smallpox cases, an infectious disease rife throughout the country at the time. Wages in Tin Town were around two pounds and ten shillings a week, a third of what a skilled craftsman could expect in a Sheffield machine shop. Despite the disparity of wages people in Tin Town were happy, according to all surviving sources, in their model village and thriving community.

 
To conclude, in the best way I can, remember and value the industrial history of our country for what it was, a valiant struggle by the masses to survive, but also a time of strong communal ties. Industrial communities were perhaps the purest expressions of community that Britain has witnessed, because of the common struggle of the individuals within those said communities. An interesting observation that many have made is that although the life of workmen, navvies, within Tin Town looks dangerous and tough, all those in the photographs that survive are smiling and appear proud of the community which they created, no matter its temporary nature. My own ancestors lived in similar circumstances, and no doubt dear reader yours did too.

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King John: Suspicious Death Or Dysentery

So, I suppose the idea is that now Richard III has unanimously been cleared of being England’s most hated historical monarch, King John comes under greater scrutiny. This villainous rogue is much more difficult to clear of said charge.

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13th Century Depiction Of King John With Two Hunting Dogs.

King John of England (1199-1216) was a terror hated in his own time but is that simply because John himself was not the victor of the conflicts and struggles of his reign, in which case his characters lines were written by another. In history John is your typical cartoon villain, cackling evilly and shouting ‘Boo!’. The charges levelled against John by his own people include the murder of his nephew Arthur, Duke of Brittany, the sexual harassment of noble wives and daughters, and the enforced starvation of the wife, Matilda de Briouze, and children of a former companion. John’s criminal unpopularity gave his barons cause to rebel, rebel against domineering rulership and the chokehold he had upon their property. This rebellion would lead the barons to force John to authorise a Charter of Liberties, the much-celebrated Magna Carta, signed at Runnymede on 15th June 1215. So, you see history itself cannot judge John too harshly, his rule gave the world the Magna Carta (he gave his signature, if not his approval), a document which would become a template for such documents as the US Constitution and the UN Declaration Of Human Rights. John’s annulment of the Magna Carta and continuous domineering however mean that few lamented his mortality, when he was finally deceased at Newark Castle, purportedly of dysentery, in October of 1216.

But did King John indeed die of dysentery? It was only it seems in the late 13th Century that this was in any way disputed, and by a mere rumour at that. It went thusly, that despite the clear historical record, King John had not been a victim of dysentery but of an assassin’s poison.

In October of 1216 John, King of England demanded hospitality at Swineshead Abbey, with the remnants of his support. Swineshead Abbey rests within the Lincolnshire Fens, a treacherous route to take at the best of times, but in haste it meant John lost half his baggage train. It is probable then that upon arrival John was not in the sunniest of moods, least of all because as John impeached upon the peace of Swineshead Abbey, Louis of France attempted to seize John’s kingdom. At this point Louis of France, supported by the majority of English barons besieged the castles of Lincoln and Windsor, having already taken possession of London and Winchester. Not once in this period had John faced Louis in battle, instead hoping to regroup his forces by retreating north, this must have been foreboding for Swineshead Abbey indeed.

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King John On A Stage Hunt.

And this is truly where the rumours of assassins and poison begins, it begins with John sitting down to dinner at Swineshead Abbey and querying of a monk just how much a loaf of bread cost, how very mundane. The monk informed King John that the loaf could have cost no more than a halfpenny. King John’s reply it is said went thusly, he first remarked that the value was good, but then his remark became more sinister, for he stated that should he live, in half a year’s time that very same loaf would cost as much as 20 shillings. Such a high price, the monk was well aware, would mean famine for John’s people, the remark was either nonsensical or pure evil. The monk vowed that he himself would rather die than see the England of John’s threat.

Traipsing to the Abbey gardens, the monk procured a toad. This would be the source of the King’s poison, using a brooch pin the monk pierced the toads skin allowing a white fluid to seep from it, this he collected carefully into a cup. Filling the cup then with a strong ale to mask the taste of the poison, the mix was taken to the king and the archaic English toast of ‘wassail!’ was given. Suspicious by nature John would only dine to drink from the cup if the monk too did so, needless to say the monk drank and so too did John. The poison employed was Bufotoxin, a toxin produced by toads which either stops the heart or causes it to race. Other symptoms include pains, seizures, nausea, hallucinations and ultimately death. With no known antidote the individuals’ fates were sealed. The monk proceeded to the Abbey’s infirmary. Suffering greatly King John demanded the whereabouts of the monk, only to be told that the monk had already proceeded to the afterlife. King John of England ordered his swollen stomach to be bound in hopes of alleviating his pain, within hours he too would succumb to the poison.

This is the telling of King John’s mortality as told within the Brut Chronicle, an often legendary chronicle of English history, written in the late 13th Century. But the Brut has a very particular image of King John it wishes to portray, that of a meddlesome tyrant who would have been the downfall of England, denying with the annulment of the Magna Carta a fair and just England. This is to be expected however, the Brut itself was intended for a very particular audience, John’s arch-enemies the barons themselves, and let’s face it they were hardly going to approve a chronicle which idolised John.

I’m just going to come straight out and say it, no matter how disappointed you may be about the distinct lack of drama, King John was NOT murdered… he really did just die of dysentery. Sorry. Although John did visit Swineshead Abbey, on what would be his last journey, he became sick with dysentery and lasted only until Newark Castle. Where, as already mentioned, on the night of 18th/19th October 1216 he died, supposedly during a portentous and terrible storm. How can she be so sure and committed that this was the case you may ask? Well, there are a number of historical accounts of what happened to John, him being a king and all. One contemporary historian writes that John was the cause of his own illness, a result of his ‘pernicious gluttony’, a reference to what some thought a cause of dysentery or a direct criticism of John’s gluttonous personality. Other writers throughout the following decade would suggest that John’s death was the imminent judgement of God upon his sinning. Though accounts may differ on details of John’s death or reasoning for it, all accounts seem to conform on one thing, the cause, with the exception of the Brut Chronicle, all accounts agree that Bad Old King John, died of dysentery.

King John was hated, of that there can be no dispute, and because of this throughout the centuries there has been a savage pleasure for many in retelling his demise, often in the most demeaning way possible. Rumours and retellings have had him poisoned, struck down through the eating unripe peaches or the drinking of too much sweet ale. And the hatred of John is lasting, some 40 years following his death, monk and chronicler of St Albans Abbey, Matthew Paris declared ‘foul as it is, Hell itself is made fouler by the presence of John’. Many in this modern day and age would still concur with Paris’s sentiment, indeed King John’s film portrayals are 90% the villain and 10% the entitled fool.

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Matthew Paris, One Of The First Historical Chroniclers Of John’s Reign.

It’s been mentioned a few times in this article, but please if you are in the area, visit Newark Castle. It was permitted by leave of King Henry I in the mid-12th century for the Bishop of Lincoln to build a bishop’s palace, the bishop however wanted a defensive castle and so devised Newark Castle as a cunning amalgamation. The Castle now appears as a ruin having been dismantled in the 17th Century following the English Civil Wars. I volunteer there and truly the tower and dungeon tours would be of great interest to any lover of history! The Castle experience is set to soon be even more spectacular with the start of the Tower Project, which aims to put floors into the tower where King John purportedly died, with the help of Heritage Lottery Funding.

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Newark Castle.

As a treat I leave you with a rendition of ‘The Phony King Of England’ a Disney production, the film is still a favourite of mine perhaps hypocritically after 19 years. I am a historian I swear… Enjoy!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eMj16A7j4RM

Durham: A Tragic Tale

Well then chaps! Its been a while since my last article. Such a while in fact that the Miniature Historian, might not be quite so miniature any more, indeed I am now attending university. Based on the title of this article, three guesses which! And to think that my first article in a year should be filled with tragedy, alas.

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A Map Of Durham From 1610

First some background, Durham is an area which has been settled since roughly 2000 BC, its current guise however is largely and quite overtly medieval. Of course, everyone knows of Durham’s wonderful 12th Century Cathedral and Castle, what fewer people know and I’d wager even many university students would be shocked about is this… One of their favourite and most frequented bars was in fact a House of Correction. Yes, that is right what was once a squalor full den of petty and serious criminals, is now a den full of often inebriated students, and arguably equally squalor full.

All joking aside however, the Bridewell (House of Correction) was a hideous penitentiary, in which conditions were inhuman and where innocent and guilty alike suffered side by side. In this article I will articulate the particularly tragic story of one individual, one Mary Nicholson, but I feel it prudent to also highlight the suffering experienced by those incarcerated in the Bridewell House of Correction. 

The House of Correction was established in 1634 on the northern side of the peninsula end of what is Elvet Bridge, in the city of Durham. Its original purpose was the reformation of itinerants, through the provision of casual employment and accommodation. Soon however this purpose evolved into that of a more traditional prison, as a containment facility for common felons. This facility would eventually be described by a Mr Nield in an 1805 edition of Gentleman’s Magazine as ‘fitter for the reception of coals than for any human being’. This condemnation however would do little to enact any adjustment or reform in the Bridewell House of Correction.

Mary Nicholson was for a number of years employed as a domestic servant in the household of farmer John Atkinson of Little Stainton. John Atkinson’s household though outwardly respectable, was not a safe place for young Mary. There were a great many rumours at the time that John Atkinson had taken great liberties and behaved cruelly towards her. It seems that there was at least some truth to these rumours as, by April 1798, Mary could no longer stand her circumstances and instigated her revenge against John Atkinson. Mary procured a quantity of arsenic powder whilst shopping in Darlington from a general supplier, claiming it was needed for the washing of some sheep. Upon her return to the household, Mary mixed the arsenic powder with some flour and proceeded to make John Atkinsons favourite pudding from the mixture. Mary’s plan backfired however when John Atkinson did not eat the pudding. This left the deadly flour/arsenic mixture unused. The household’s matriarch, Elizabeth Atkinson (John’s mother), upon seeing the wasted flour/arsenic mixture, undertook to bake from it a loaf of bread. A loaf of bread which the family then shared. The entirety of the household, all five members became violently ill. A doctor was employed and ultimately succeeded in preserving the lives of four of the afflicted. The fifth, Elizabeth Atkinson herself suffered an agonizing death, succumbing on the 16th day of her torment.

Poor Mary was distraught at the outcome of her attempted revenge. Freely admitting to three different individuals as to her responsibility for the tragedy, she also confessed to her intention to poison John Atkinson because of his treatment of her. Curiously, however the Atkinson family did nothing more than dismiss her from their service, in response to her confessions, instructing her that if she left they would take no proceedings against her. This left Mary wandering the countryside, destitute and starving, she could find no employment and eventually as an act of desperation returned to the Atkinson household to appeal to their mercy. In response she was handed over to the authorities.

Mary’s trial was held in Durham city at the Summer Assizes of 1798, the case it seemed was of the open and shut kind, she was proclaimed guilty of wilful murder and sentenced to death. The astute amongst you will see a glaring problem with this initial verdict. Mary was charged and prosecuted for the intentional murder of Elizabeth Atkinson. It had been Mary’s intention to end the life of John Atkinson, that had been premeditated, but she had recanted her attempt. Mary had done nothing with the poisoned flour, it had been Elizabeth Atkinson herself independent of Mary who had prepared the bread. Thus, there is a strong case for Elizabeth Atkinsons death not in fact being classified as murder, but simply accident. Despite having no legal representative, a point of law was raised against the prosecution and Mary was given a temporary reprieve. It would take an entire year, whilst her case was considered by the 12 judges sitting at the Common Law Courts in Westminster, before Mary knew her fate. An entire year under the custody of Durham City, in the Bridewell. A year.

Interestingly before the 1823 Gaol Act, the prison’s warden had to pay for the right to administrate the gaol, consequently the warden would recuperate his funds by charging prisoners for the services of the gaol. This could and often did include payments for sustenance, drink, bedding material and an eventual payment to ensure your release from the gaol. Understandably many prisoners were too poor to afford such ‘service charges’ and as such would suffer greatly from starvation, dehydration and disease. Perhaps the Bridewell’s only positive in comparison to other prisons was the provision of facilities of employment, thus anything earned by the prisoners could be kept to pay the warden’s ‘service charges’. The Bridewell was host to a variety of inmates, debtors resided beside petty felons, transportees beside murders, vagrants beside those intended for execution, those designated as lunatics beside innocents or those yet to be proven guilty.

Thankfully Mary’s time in the Bridewell, was not quite so unhappy as it could/should have been. She found employment, working as an unofficial housekeeper for the family of her gaoler. So dedicated and helpful to them was she that they welcomed her fully into their domestic circle. Eventually Mary was even allowed to go freely on errands across the city. Her dealings with individuals throughout the Durham City community led to her becoming a well-liked and recognised individual. The time came when all restrictions previously placed on her movements were rescinded, despite the dark anticipation of her sentence and her newfound opportunity, not once over her 12 months of incarceration did Mary attempt to escape.

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John Speed’s Map Of The County Of Durham c.1611. A Number Of The Places On This Map Would Have Been Known To Mary.

It was with great anticipation that a year later the month of June once again arrived, it was finally time to resolve the sordid business of Mary Nicholson’s sentence. In view of her year long incarceration, the judge sought a quick resolution. The Durham Assizes sat in session and passed down the verdict of the Common Law Courts. Mary Nicholson was to be hanged on the 22nd July 1799, which was the following Saturday. Many were stunned by the verdict. The hanging was to take place on Framwellgate Moor.

A large crowd gathered for Mary Nicholson’s execution, hoping to pay their respects. Mary conducted herself with dignity and spoke her farewells with great kindness. And then Mary Nicholson was hung.

But then the rope snapped, Mary was quickly revived by her friends and to the assembled crowds it must have seemed as if some higher justice had intervened. Surely, after such a reprieve, Mary Nicholson would be allowed to go free. Many had thought her sentence an injustice the minute it had been handed down, in reality she had not committed premeditated murder, and had become an upstanding and valued member of the community.

An hour passed as a replacement rope was sourced and set upon the gallows. Mary Nicholson was forced to once again mount the cart and she was hung. This time there would be no reprieve from the Almighty or otherwise. Mary Nicholson, this tragic figure, or murderess, died.

That days Newcastle Chronicle would state that Mary Nicholson was ‘launched into eternity amidst the shrieks and distressful cries of the surrounding spectators’. She would be the last female victim of the hangman’s noose in the county of Durham.

Thankfully, in 1821, the House of Correction at the bottom of the peninsula side of Elvet Bridge, the almost 200 year old Bridewell, was sold. The area regenerated into the commercial district it is today, and new buildings replaced prison cells and workshops. Gone is the place of Mary Nicholson’s suffering, gone are those that condemned her, gone are those who called her friend, few are the people now that remember her.

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Jimmy Allen’s Bar What Was The Bridewell House Of Correction. From http://www.durhamghostwalk.co.uk/Allens1.html

 

Sincerely A. B. Marshall

Any history geek or culinary enthusiast worth their salt has of course heard of the cooking leviathan Mrs Isabella Beeton and her infamous Book of Household management, but she wasn’t as I’m sure you’ll all be surprised to know the only female entrepreneur in this particular arena at the time. The name Agnes Marshall I am sure probably means very little to you, but and here is the thing… it really should.

Agnes Bertha Marshall was born on the 24th August 1855 and lived to become an English culinary entrepreneur and one of the foremost cookery writers of the Victorian period. Not only was she this but was also a pioneer in terms of the home production of ice cream and frozen desserts, an endeavour which led to her being dubbed ‘Queen of Ices’. In the time before any form of practical domestic refrigeration techniques or indeed technology, her successes in this area quite dramatically, for an individual increased the demand in London for ice imported from Norway. Marshall’s 1888 cookery book contained what is possibly the earliest publication of a recipe for an edible ice cream cone ‘cornets with cream’, so we can all definitely thank her for that at least.

Agnes_B_Marshall

So very little is known about Marshall’s early life with the exception that she was born in Walthanstow, her father one John Smith was a clerk he however died whilst she was still young and her mother remarried. It was also written later in her life in the Pall Mall Gazette however that Marshall was a student of the culinary arts from a young age and ‘practiced at Paris and with Vienna’s celebrated chefs’.

Over the course of her lifetime Marshall wrote four books Ices Plain and Fancy: The Book of Ices (1885), Mrs. A.B. Marshall’s Book of Cookery (1888), Mrs. A.B. Marshall’s Larger Cookery Book of Extra Recipes (1891) and Fancy Ices (1894). Marshall also gave numerous public lectures on cooking and ran a successful agency for domestic staff. She was also notably granted a patent for an improved ice cream machine that could freeze a pint of ice cream in five minutes, a quite remarkable feat for the time not only this but she suggested the use of liquid nitrogen in the making of ice cream, a practice which would not become common for around a decade later.

She and her husband established the prestigious Marshall School of Cookery in Mortimer Street in 1883 and also published a popular weekly magazine entitled, The Table, from 1886. This when she moved to London where she purchased the National Training School of Cookery from its owners, creating from it the aforementioned Marshall School of Cookery and building an impressive prestige and clientele. The later decades of the Victorian era saw the relatively modest beginnings of what would come to be termed domestic science and with its development the entrepreneurial Agnes Marshall boosted the schools number of pupils from a pitiful 40 within 2 years to thousands on numerous day to yearlong courses. Her pupil demographic was understandably extensive from those in domestic service sponsored by employers to aristocratic ladies who felt themselves in need of a suitable pastime. The curriculum taught was also revolutionary as it “offered specialty instruction in cooking, including lessons in curry from an English colonel who had served in India and classes in French haute cuisine taught by a Cordon Bleu graduate.”

Marshall also sold numerous culinary supplies such as leaf gelatine and equipment such as a surprisingly extensive range of jelly moulds, advertising such wares religiously in her recipes and in her books. Other such things sold were cutlery, cast-iron equipment, baking powder, flavourings, vegetable food colorants and by 1888 an edible ‘cornet a la crème’ an ice cream cone made from ground almonds. Not only this but with the eventual advent of a kitchen shop her students cuisine was sold directly to the general public.

Agnes Marshall’s lectures became legendary in her own time and she surprisingly had time (with all her other endeavours) to schedule six talks per week in Leeds, Manchester, Glasgow, Birmingham and Newcastle with her second tour visiting an additional 12 cities. Despite her live culinary demonstrations given on consecutive Saturdays in London sometimes drawing huge crowds and exceptionally complimentary reviews, Marshall found little success in the US despite her fame in Europe.

By the mid 1890’s Marshall began to decrease her workload from cooking, teaching, administration and writing to instigating Yule dinners and a system of winter soup kitchens for the growing percentage of Victorian poor.

Unfortunately after her death in 1905 just a month short of her 50th birthday, the rights to her books were sold to Mrs Beeton’s publisher, Ward Lock and her husband took control over the business that they had previously run together resulting ultimately in its failure. Marshall was just as popular, if not more so than Beeton in her day why then is her name not spoken with just as much frequency in the kitchens of amateur and professional cooks alike. In the late Victorian era the name A.B. Marshall could be seen everywhere but by the time of her tragic death she had sunk into relative obscurity with the destruction of her property and personal goods in a 1950’s fire further burying her extensive legacy which rivalled that of Beeton in the eyes of her contemporaries.

Marshall’s influence in her own time and for a while after her death was extensive however as she passionately denounced canned food and the often substandard meals provided on the railways, she also campaigned for greater year round availability of fresh produce and properly trained kitchen staff. Indeed it seems that she foresaw numerous reasonably modern developments within industry such as the expansion of automobile travel, fad diets, supermarkets, dishwashers, refrigerated transport, chemical purification of water and the popularization of freezers particularly and perhaps not surprisingly given her title in terms of ice cream.

And so it is that below I shall include an A. B. Marshall recipe in the hopes that perhaps you will cook it and thus remember a woman who was a not only a pioneer, but a pioneer in a time where women were still thought incapable of conducting business. This seemingly unknown figure in my opinion deserve the same status as Mrs Isabella Beeton, so its Mrs Agnes Marshall cook, lecturer, business owner, writer, inventor, campaigner, charity worker and pioneer, got it… good!

Albert Pudding

‘Put a quarter of a pound of fresh butter into a basin, and work it with a wooden spoon till quite white like cream; add a saltspoonful of ground ginger, the finely-chopped peel of two lemons, a teaspoonful of vanilla essence, and three ounces of castor sugar; mix these together for a few minutes, then add two ounces of finely-sifted flour, two ounces of ratafia biscuit crumbs, the raw yolks of four eggs, half a wineglassful of brandy or liqueur, and colour a pale salmon colour with Marshall’s Liquid Carmine; then add the eighth of an ounce of Cowan’s Baking Powder, whip five whites of eggs to a stiff froth and mix with the other ingredients. Butter a plain mould, dust it over with dried cocoanut and ratafia crumbs; then fill it with the mixture, and let the pudding steam for eighty minutes; when cooked turn it out on to a hot dish, and serve at once with Apricot sauce or Albert sauce round the base.’

Mrs A. B. Marshall’s Larger Cookery Book Of Extra Recipes – I have made this recipe before and it is quite yummy… watch out for the kick of brandy though it’s quite severe.

Superfortress ‘Over Exposed’ – The Remnants Dark Peak

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Ok, sorry for the time it has taken me to complete this article however I believe it has been worth the time and effort. So on the 2nd of April me and my dad ventured out it utterly glorious weather to search on the Derbyshire Moors for a crash site…

On Bleaklow Moor there is scattered the remains of an American WW2 Superfortress bomber, it is indeed a poignant place to visit as much of the wreckage is still visible. This Superfortress was not your standard B29 bomber but instead was an B-29 photographic reconnaissance aircraft. Not long at all after the end of WW2 the Soviet Union blockaded off the Allies road, rail and canal access to Western Berlin (one of the first major instances of the Cold War), with the proviso that the blockades would be lifted if the newly introduced Deutschmark was withdrawn from Western Berlin. In response to this it was necessary for the allies to air drop supplies to the citizens of Western Berlin hence the now famous Berlin Airdrop which continued from June 1948 until the 12th May 1949 and which our aforementioned Superfortress was involved.

Piece of Wreckage

During WW2 many nations took to naming their aircraft, this B-29 which was a part of USAF’s 16th Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron was no exception, and was aptly named ‘Overexposed’. At the time of her tragic crash, she and her squadron were based at RAF Scampton in Lincolnshire, however she had already flown many miles and had an eventful life by this point in her service. This B-29 was one of three which ordered to accompany, the B29 Superfortress that had been tasked with the deployment of the ‘Able’ atomic bomb at Bikini Atoll (in the Pacific) in 1946.

Due to the diminutive American presence at American Logistics base Burtonwood, all the mail and pay packets destined for these squadrons was delivered to RAF Scampton, this meant there had to be regular collection and resupply flights between these military bases. Also sacks of mail bound for the states were loaded in. The Superfortress ‘Overexposed’ was on the 3rd November 1948 tasked with just such a flight, for such a mission only minimum flight crew was required however some American personnel chose to go, as the American base at Burtonwood provided the opportunity for the acquiring of some creature comforts, this brought the number of crew members up to 13. It was only a 25 minute flight away which the pilot may have made before, so to the personnel aboard the flight must have seemed to have little risk attached to it.

At about 10.15 on the morning of the 3rd of November, the pilot of B-29 Superfortress ‘Overexposed’ filed his Visual Flight Record with Flight Control for what was supposed to be a simple routine flight.

The November weather the day of the flight was not good and the cloud level was lower than 2000 feet with visibility being four to six miles. It was 11.15 am when the B-29 Superfortress flew across the moor not far from Burtonwood final approach basically at ground level. It is unclear why Captain Landon Tanner flew into the ground a couple of hundred yards from the highest point of Bleaklow (approximately 2077 feet).

An Engine

It should be noted that Captain Tanner had no notable reason for being below 2000 feet, as he was still just a few minutes under ten minutes away from Burtonwood. The facts remain his maps would clearly show him the high ground he was flying over, he had been informed of how low the cloud base was (from his pre-flight meteorological reports at Scampton and from communications via radio from Burtonwood). It was just a 25 minute trip from Scampton to Burtonwood in a B-29.

It is perfectly acceptable to believe that the adverse weather conditions effected the navigator’s calculations on the aircrafts position significantly, resulting in them thinking they were a lot closer to Burtonwood than they were in reality.

Captain Tanner’s crew for the trip consisted of co-pilot – Captain Harry Stroud, engineer – Technical Sergeant Ralph Fields, radio operator – Staff Sergeant Gene A Gartner, navigator – Sergeant Charles Wilbanks, radar operator – David D Moore, camera crew – Technical sergeant Saul R Banks, Sergeant Donald R Abrogast, Sergeant Robert I Doyle and Private First Class William M Burrows. Two more crew members were Corporal George Ingram, Corporal M Franssen and acting photographic advisor Captain Howard Keel of the 4201st Motion Picture Unit.

A Memorial

When ‘Over Exposed’ failed to arrive at Burtonwood an air search was initiated, and the Superfortress’s blazing wreckage was spotted that afternoon. By chance Members of the Harpur Hill RAF Mountain Rescue Unit had just completed an exercise two and a half miles away, on their radio they picked up the messages that were being broadcast by the search aircraft. They checked the map reference and Flight Sergeant George Thompson and Corporal William Duthie both noted their proximity to the crash site and ordered their men approach the site and search from one side, whilst they started the search from Doctor’s Gate. Poor visibility prevented them from seeing the aircraft at first, but after 20 minutes they spotted the Superfortress’s tailfin and the fires blazing around it. Several bodies were scattered around the remains of the plain, Harpur Hill RAF Mountain Rescue could do nothing for them so they went back to their vehicle, so they could guide the Glossop firemen to the wreckage which was spread for a quarter of a mile across the moor. An extensive search was made for survivors, none were found and only eight bodies were located. The next morning around fifty men set off across the moor towards the downed aircraft, it was two hours before they saw the tailfin. They scoured the moor for the missing personnel, eventually all the bodies were discovered, scrambling about the wreckage an American Officer found a satchel containing £7000, part of the payroll.

Wreckage

Ted Ward a member of the RAF Mountain Rescue Team for Harpur Hill recalled: –

The first piece of wreckage that I came across was the nose wheel, followed after some 200 hundred yards by the tail unit.

Ted Ward was also close by when the remaining four bodies were found:-

I was within two or three yards when the remaining four were found, unfortunately they were burned beyond recognition.

The crew of ‘Over Exposed’ had completed their required service in Britain and were due to return home to the states in 3 days.

The Wreckage has been surrounded by many memorial crosses.

The Wreckage has been surrounded by many memorial crosses.

One visitor to this incredible site found a wedding ring belonging to one of the crew members and endeavoured to find its rightful owner, needless to say he succeeded and a local paper wanted to report on it. So he and the papers photographer ventured onto the moors and he stood in front of the wreckage for a photograph. The next thing this visitor knew the photographer was ‘legging it’ across the moor, when he finally caught up he asked the photographer why he had run. The photographer told him that when he had looked through the cameras lens to take a photograph, all of the Superfortress’s crew were stood around him.

I will state here that neither I nor my dad experienced anything like this whilst at the site, however it is certainly a sombre place and we left thoughtful.

If you want to know more about Superfortress ‘Over Exposed’ and other crash sites on Dark Peak. I whole heartedly recommend Dark Peak Aircraft Wrecks 1 by Ron Collier and Roni Wilkinson. If you do visit please do not disturb the wreckage as it stands testament and in memorial to the men that lost their lives there.

I may do another post on this subject, however now it really is exam season and so there may not be any posts for awhile.

All that roams there now is nature.

All that roams there now is nature.

Unsung Documenter: Henrietta Maria Queen Of England

Henrietta Maria of France, Painted By Anthony Van Dyke

Henrietta Maria of France, Painted By Anthony Van Dyke

 

Much has been written about the English Civil Wars, with many author’s being contemporary to the conflict, however some of these author’s I believe deserve more recognition as they provide unique insights into a horrific conflict through which they survived to ‘tell the tale’. Henrietta Maria can be considered a less well known Queen of England, this in all probability a consequence of the Civil Wars, the execution of her husband Charles 1 and her subsequent exile to France. Henrietta’s strong views on religion and the absolute power of the king, who is anointed by God, meant that by 1642 she was an extremely unpopular monarch, not only because she was foreign and therefore distrusted, but because she had the ear of the king and was thus perfectly placed to influence him. Henrietta remained ever faithful to her religion and thus remained sympathetic to her fellow Catholics and as a result of gestures such as the construction of a Catholic chapel at Somerset House in 1632, it can clearly be seen that the Queen was not concerned with cultivating good will towards herself from her subjects. The Chapel was extremely unpopular amongst the local protestant community, and it is rumoured that London apprentices even considered destroying it as an anti-Catholic expression. The Chapel although fairly non-descript externally, was extremely elaborate internally this combined with its opening being a grand ceremony, mortified and alarmed local Protestants. Henrietta seemed determined to again cultivate a more open Catholic community in England; this led to many Catholics being more open about their Catholicism in court discussion and prevalent in court as a denomination. Because of this blatant publicising of the Catholic faith king Charles 1 came under criticism for his failure to prevent several high profile conversions to the Catholic faith. Henrietta was even so bold as to hold a requiem mass for high profile priest Father Richard Blount in her private chapel in the year of his death 1638. Perhaps her most scandalous escapades from the Puritans perspective however were her several roles in masque plays, in which she chose roles to further the development the Catholic community in England and promote ecumenism. Hatred towards Henrietta reached a crisis point in the 1630’s; this was only enflamed with the punishments devised for those that openly criticised her. In 1630 for example a Scottish doctor by the name of Alexander Leighton, was flogged, branded, mutilated and imprisoned for life for being the author of a pamphlet which denounced Henrietta. Even the popular puritan lawyer William Prynne had his ears cut off in the late 1630’s for questioning the integrity of women actresses and subsequently writing of this opinion, this was seen at the time as a clear insult to Henrietta. Much of London society would later blame Henrietta for the Irish rebellion of 1641, which was in reality coordinated by Jesuits, who in public imagination Henrietta was linked to. In 1641 an alliance of Parliamentarians under John Pym attempted to use Henrietta as a way of placing pressure on Charles 1. A list of grievances called the Grand Remonstrance which was passed near the end of 1641, referred to and condemned to a Roman Catholic conspiracy, although not mentioned by name it was clear to all that Henrietta was involved. This contributed to the fleeing of her confidant Henry Jermyn to the Continent, Jermyn’s involvement in the First Army Plot of 1641 also forced him to flee after its discovery. It is believed that Henrietta encouraged Charles to arrest his parliamentary opposition in January 1642. The French ambassador, Marquis de La Ferte-Imbault advised reconciliation with Pym and cautious observation to ensure no further plots. Pym and his colleagues arrest was unsuccessful, it is thought as a result of a leak of secret information from Henrietta’s former confidant Lucy Hay. In an attempt to defuse tension in society caused by her open Catholicism and her influence over the king, the retreat was also allowed for the queen’s personal safety Henrietta retreated to The Hague.

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Henrietta was still at The Hague in August 1642 when the Civil War began, she attempted to raise money for the Royalist cause, by selling off the Royal jewels and attempting to persuade the King of Denmark and Prince of Orange to offer their support to Charles’ cause. For this she was portrayed in the English press as selling off the crown jewels to foreigners in exchanged for guns to resolve a religious conflict, adding to her infamy. During this time Henrietta urged Charles to secure the strategic port of Hull at the earliest opportunity.

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Henrietta attempted to return to England at the beginning of 1643, unfortunately severe weather conditions forced her ship to return to Port, Henrietta made the most of this delay by convincing the Dutch to release a ship of armaments for the King, which had been held at the request of Parliament. In defiance of the advice given by her astrologers who foresaw disaster, she attempted the journey again at the end of February; she evaded the Parliamentarian navy to find harbour at Bridlington in Yorkshire. Unfortunately the pursuing navy then bombarded the town, thus forcing the Royalists to shelter in nearby fields, however whilst still under fire Henrietta returned to the town to recover her dog Mitte who had been neglected by her staff. Whilst stopping in York she was entertained by the Earl of Newcastle, she took the opportunity discuss situations North of the border with Royalist Scots, she promoted Montrose and others plans for an uprising. Henrietta also supported many other controversial schemes such as the earl of Antrim’s proposition to settle the rebellions in Ireland and thus bring forces to support the king in England, the queen refused to support anything other than total victory for royalist forces. She was asked on many occasions by both Pym and Hampden to use her influence over the king to force the making of a peace treaty, each time she flatly refused. Perhaps in retaliation parliament voted the destruction of her own private chapel at Somerset House. In March the chapel was razed by the parliamentarians Henry Marten and John Clotworthy, the altarpiece by Ruben’s was destroyed, the many religious idols fragmented and the Queens religious vestments, books and artworks burnt to a cinder and the Capuchin friars responsible for maintaining the chapel arrested.

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Despite this loss Henrietta travelled south and rendezvoused with Charles at Kineton before traveling to the Royalist capital of Oxford through the Midlands an area continuously contested by both parties.

We cannot doubt the Queens courage, but perhaps her most endearing quality to me is her avid correspondence writing and the true grit she expresses through every sentence. She is no doubt an unsung documenter of one of the most tumultuous times in history.